This study presents a comprehensive framework to identify dynamic radio frequency identification (RFID) adoption and diffusion from three different perspectives: stages of adoption, levels of analysis, and domain of issues. The main concern of this study is stages of adoption, which covers three phases in respect of the maturity of the RFID project and the sophistication of business applications and RFID technology. The level of analysis involves different units of analysis beyond the organization level, including the industry- and country-level, which is lacking in the current literature. To understand dimensions of RFID issues, a strategy, technology, organization, people and environment (STOPE) based approach was applied. An extensive review of prior literature was conducted to find various RFID success factors and the Delphi method was applied to find positions of these factors within the framework. Based on the Delphi, some factors belong to early stage of adoption, and some others persist in the later stages of adoption. At the country level, factors such as RFID national policy, R&D policy and income per capita were accepted by most experts at the preliminary and intermediate stage; strategy and environment were accepted as important domains. To find practical implications of the framework, a case study of Indonesia was conducted at each level of analysis. Analytic hierarchy process (AHP) was applied to identify most important factors and important domains of issues with respect to the factors from the Delphi results. At country level, RFID policy, vision of leadership and RFID potential market are the most important factors; strategy and environment are the most important domains. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.