Firms that have implemented knowledge management initiatives are now interested in nurturing voluntary knowledge sharing organizations, called communities of practice (Cops). Adopting the Triandis model on attitude formation, we identified and validated a set of organizational factors that was anticipated to have effects on knowledge sharing by CoP members such as perceived consequences, affect, social factors and facilitating conditions. One hundred and seventy-nine members from 70 CoPs of a large multinational electronics firm participated in this survey. Based on the PLS analysis, perceived consequences, affect, social factors, and facilitating conditions were found to significantly affect knowledge sharing in CoPs. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.