Statics and dynamics of strongly charged soft matter

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Soft matter materials, such as polymers, membranes, proteins, are often electrically charged. This makes them water soluble, which is of great importance in technological application and a prerequisite for biological function. We discuss a few static and dynamic systems that are dominated by charge effects. One class comprises complexation between oppositely charged objects, for example the adsorption of charged ions or charged polymers on oppositely charged substrates of different geometry. Here the main questions are whether adsorption occurs and what the effective charge of the resulting complex is. We explicitly discuss the adsorption behavior of polyelectrolytes on substrates of planar, cylindrical and spherical geometry with specific reference to DNA adsorption on supported charged lipid layers, DNA adsorption on oppositely charged cylindrical dendro-polymers, and DNA binding on globular histone proteins, respectively. In all these systems salt plays a crucial role, and some of the important features can already be obtained on the linear Debye-Huckel level. The second class comprises effective interactions between similarly charged objects. Here the main theme is to understand the experimental finding that similarly and highly charged bodies attract each other in the presence of multi-valent counterions. This is demonstrated using field-theoretic arguments as well as Monte-Carlo simulations for the case of two homogeneously charged bodies. Realistic surfaces, on the other hand, are corrugated and also exhibit modulated charge distributions, which is important for static properties such as the counterion-density distribution, but has even more pronounced consequences for dynamic properties such as the counterion mobility. More pronounced dynamic effects are obtained with highly condensed charged systems in strong electric fields. Likewise, an electrostatically collapsed highly charged polymer is unfolded and oriented in strong electric fields. All charged systems occur in water, and water by itself is not a very well understood material. At the end of this review, we give a very brief and incomplete account of the behavior of water at planar surfaces. The coupling between water structure and charge effects is largely unexplored, and a few directions for future research are sketched. On an even more nanoscopic level, we demonstrate using ab initio methods that specific interactions between oppositely charged groups (which occur when their electron orbitals start to overlap) are important and cause ion-specific effects that have recently moved into the focus of interest. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V All rights reserved.
Publisher
ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Issue Date
2005-09
Language
English
Article Type
Review
Keywords

ELECTRICAL DOUBLE-LAYER; SELF-ASSEMBLED MONOLAYERS; LOW IONIC-STRENGTH; MONTE-CARLO SIMULATIONS; AQUEOUS-ELECTROLYTE SOLUTIONS; NUCLEOSOME CORE PARTICLES; POLYELECTROLYTE-MACROION COMPLEXES; GIANT COLLECTIVE FLUCTUATIONS; VESICLE UNBINDING TRANSITION; MOLECULE FORCE SPECTROSCOPY

Citation

PHYSICS REPORTS-REVIEW SECTION OF PHYSICS LETTERS, v.416, no.3-4, pp.129 - 199

ISSN
0370-1573
DOI
10.1016/j.physrep.2005.06.006
URI
http://hdl.handle.net/10203/90787
Appears in Collection
NT-Journal Papers(저널논문)
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