Comorbidity of normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) is not uncommon. However, few studies have reported the clinical courses of these patients in depth. A 73-year-old woman was confirmed to have AD by a biopsy performed during a shunt operation for NPH after a head trauma. She was followed for 4 years using serial neuropsychological tests and positron emission tomography (PET). Her clinical symptoms remained improved for 2.5 years and then declined. The 1-year minus the presurgical PET scan highlighted the bilateral frontal area, basal ganglia, and thalamus, which may reflect brain regions associated with the improvement of hydrocephalic dementia. On the other hand, the 1-year minus the 4-year scan highlighted the bilateral temporoparietal area and the posterior cingulate gyrus, which may reflect brain regions associated with the aggravation of AD. This subtraction method may be useful for monitoring the clinical course in patients with NPH and AD.