An effective design method is suggested for a flexible keel design for energy-storing prosthetic feet (ESPF). The basic, two-dimensional shape of the keel is based on anthropometric data and normal gait analysis available in the literature. Cost function is defined for the performance evaluation of the keel. Five factors and five levels of their effect on the performance of the keel are established. By use of an orthogonal array table, 25 trials of dynamic simulations of prosthetic walking are designed, from among 3125 possible combinations, dramatically reducing the number of total simulations needed to examine sufficiently the contribution of each factor to cost function. A prosthetic walking model is built, and a dynamic simulation of prosthetic walking is performed using the finite element method. The contribution of each factor to cost function is investigated by an analysis of variance (ANOVA), and the average main effects of factors for cost function are calculated. The optimum combination of factor levels is obtained by minimisation of cost function. To examine the structural safety of the keel, the deformation and stress distribution of the keel are investigated by static analysis, and failure indices are calculated by three failure criteria. Finally, the optimum flexible keel is designed with increased energy storage capacity, without failure, and suitable for more active prosthetic walking; the recoverable strain energy stored in the optimum ESPF keel is 25.8J.