Vision-based navigation of unmaned aerial vehicle is a significant technology that can reinforce the vulnerability of the widely used GPS/INS integrated navigation system. However, the existing image matching algorithms are not suitable for matching the aerial image with the database. For the reason, this paper proposes particle filters using Gaussian mixture models to deal with matching between aerial image and database for vision-based navigation. The particle filters estimate the position of the aircraft by comparing the correspondences of aerial image and database under the assumption of Gaussian mixture model. Finally, Monte Carlo simulation is presented to demonstrate performance of the proposed method.