Functional hyperemia in the rat cortex was investigated using high-speed optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography and Doppler OCT. OCT angiography (OCTA) was performed to image the hemodynamic stimulus-response over a wide field of view. Temporal changes in vessel diameters in different vessel compartments, which were determined as the diameters of erythrocyte flows in OCT angiograms, were measured in order to monitor localized hemodynamic changes. Our results showed that the dilation of arterioles at the site of activation was accompanied by the dilation of upstream arteries. Relatively negligible dilation was observed in veins. An increase in the OCTA signal was observed during stimulus in multiple capillaries, which may imply that capillary blood flow increases as a result of the expanded arterial blood volume. These results agree with previous observations using two-photon laser scanning microscopy (TPLSM). Doppler OCT was performed to quantitatively measure stimulus-induced blood flow response in pial arteries. The measurement showed small but clear hemodynamic response in upstream arteries with diameters exceeding 100 μm. Our results demonstrate the potential of OCTA and Doppler OCT for the investigation of neurovascular coupling in small animal models.