Composite structures are assertively used for new airframe designs and manufacturing in military aircrafts because of superior strength-to-weight ratios and fatigue resistance. Because the composites have different fatigue failure characteristics compared with metals, it is necessary to develop different approaches for the composite fatigue design and testing. In this study, we propose an in situ damage evaluation technology with high spatial resolution during full-scale fatigue testing of composite aircraft structures. For real composite structure development considering composite fatigue characteristics, full-scale fatigue and damage tolerance tests of the composite fuselage structure were conducted to evaluate the structural characteristics. In the meantime, the laser ultrasonic nondestructive inspection method, called an angular scan pulse-echo ultrasonic propagation imager, which is fully noncontact, real-time, and portable to position it in between the complex test rigs, is used to observe in situ damage growth of the composite. Finally, the verification procedure assisted by the angular scan pulse-echo ultrasonic propagation imager assures no growth of the initial impact damages after lifetime operation and proves the damage tolerance capability of the developed composite fuselage structure.