Two-dimensional (2D) inorganic nanomaterials have attracted enormous interest in diverse research areas because of their intriguing physicochemical properties. However, reliable method for the synthesis and composition manipulation of polycrystalline inorganic nanosheets (NSs) are still considered grand challenges. Here, we report a robust synthetic route for producing various kinds of inorganic porous NSs with desired multiple components and precise compositional stoichiometry by employing tunicin, i.e., cellulose extracted from earth-abundant marine invertebrate shell waste. Cellulose fibrils can be tightly immobilized on graphene oxide (GO) NSs to form stable tunicin-loaded GO NSs, which are used as a sacrificial template for homogeneous adsorption of diverse metal precursors. After a subsequent pyrolysis process, 2D metallic or metal oxide NSs are formed without any structural collapse. The rationally designed tunicin-loaded GO NS templating route paves a new path for the simple preparation of multicompositional inorganic NSs for broad applications, including chemical sensing and electrocatalysis.