Advances in CRISPR-Cas systems for RNA targeting, tracking and editing

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Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein (Cas) systems, especially type II (Cas9) systems, have been widely used in gene/genome targeting. Modifications of Cas9 enable these systems to become platforms for precise DNA manipulations. However, the utilization of CRISPR-Cas systems in RNA targeting remains preliminary. The discovery of type VI CRISPR-Cas systems (Cas13) shed light on RNA-guided RNA targeting. Cas13d, the smallest Cas13 protein, with a length of only similar to 930 amino acids, is a promising platform for RNA targeting compatible with viral delivery systems. Much effort has also been made to develop Cas9, Cas13a and Cas13b applications for RNA-guided RNA targeting. The discovery of new RNA targeting CRISPR-Cas systems as well as the development of RNA-targeting platforms with Cas9 and Cas13 will promote RNA-targeting technology substantially. Here, we review new advances in RNA-targeting CRISPR-Cas systems as well as advances in applications of these systems in RNA targeting, tracking and editing. We also compare these Cas protein-based technologies with traditional technologies for RNA targeting, tracking and editing. Finally, we discuss remaining questions and prospects for the future.
Publisher
PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Issue Date
2019-09
Language
English
Article Type
Review
Citation

BIOTECHNOLOGY ADVANCES, v.37, no.5, pp.708 - 729

ISSN
0734-9750
DOI
10.1016/j.biotechadv.2019.03.016
URI
http://hdl.handle.net/10203/264383
Appears in Collection
CBE-Journal Papers(저널논문)
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