Stability of Halide Perovskite Solar Cell Devices: In Situ Observation of Oxygen Diffusion under Biasing

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Using in situ electrical biasing transmission electron microscopy, structural and chemical modification to n-i-p-type MAPbI(3) solar cells are examined with a TiO2 electron-transporting layer caused by bias in the absence of other stimuli known to affect the physical integrity of MAPbI(3) such as moisture, oxygen, light, and thermal stress. Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) measurements reveal that oxygen ions are released from the TiO2 and migrate into the MAPbI(3) under a forward bias. The injection of oxygen is accompanied by significant structural transformation; a single-crystalline MAPbI(3) grain becomes amorphous with the appearance of PbI2. Withdrawal of oxygen back to the TiO2, and some restoration of the crystallinity of the MAPbI(3), is observed after the storage in dark under no bias. A subsequent application of a reverse bias further removes more oxygen ions from the MAPbI(3). Light current-voltage measurements of perovskite solar cells exhibit poorer performance after elongated forward biasing; recovery of the performance, though not complete, is achieved by subsequently applying a negative bias. The results indicate negative impacts on the device performance caused by the oxygen migration to the MAPbI(3) under a forward bias. This study identifies a new degradation mechanism intrinsic to n-i-p MAPbI(3) devices with TiO2.
Publisher
WILEY-V C H VERLAG GMBH
Issue Date
2018-09
Language
English
Article Type
Article
Citation

ADVANCED MATERIALS, v.30, no.39

ISSN
0935-9648
DOI
10.1002/adma.201802769
URI
http://hdl.handle.net/10203/254188
Appears in Collection
MS-Journal Papers(저널논문)
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