Coupling of the electron orbital motion and spin, i.e., spin–orbit coupling (SOC) leads to nontrivial changes in energy-level structures, giving rise to various spectroscopies and applications. The SOC in solids generates energy-band inversion or splitting under zero or weak magnetic fields, which is required for topological phases or Majorana fermions. Here, we examined the interplay between the Zeeman splitting and SOC by performing the transport spectroscopy of Landau levels (LLs) in indium arsenide nanowires under a strong magnetic field. We observed the anomalous Zeeman splitting of LLs, which depends on the quantum number of LLs as well as the electron spin. We considered that this observation was attributed to the interplay between the Zeeman splitting and the SOC. Our findings suggest an approach of generating spin-resolved chiral electron transport in nanowires.