A catecholamine neurotransmitter, dopamine (DA), is suggested to be linked to the pathology of dementia; however, the involvement of DA and its structural analogues in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the most common form of dementia, composed of multiple pathogenic factors has not been clear. Herein, we report that DA and its rationally designed structural derivatives (1–6) based on DA’s oxidative transformation are able to modulate multiple pathological elements found in AD [i.e., metal ions, metal-free amyloid-β (Aβ), metal-bound Aβ (metal–Aβ), and reactive oxygen species (ROS)], with demonstration of detailed molecular-level mechanisms. Our multidisciplinary studies validate that the protective effects of DA and its derivatives on Aβ aggregation and Aβ-mediated toxicity are induced by their oxidative transformation with concomitant ROS generation under aerobic conditions. In particular, DA and the derivatives (i.e., 3 and 4) show their noticeable anti-amyloidogenic ability toward metal-free Aβ and/or metal–Aβ, verified to occur via their oxidative transformation that facilitates Aβ oxidation. Moreover, in primary pan-microglial marker (CD11b)-positive cells, the major producers of inflammatory mediators in the brain, DA and its derivatives significantly diminish inflammation and oxidative stress triggered by lipopolysaccharides and Aβ through the reduced induction of inflammatory mediators as well as upregulated expression of heme oxygenase-1, the enzyme responsible for production of antioxidants. Collectively, we illuminate how DA and its derivatives could prevent multiple pathological features found in AD. The overall studies could advance our understanding regarding distinct roles of neurotransmitters in AD and identify key interactions for alleviation of AD pathology.