Femtosecond-Laser-Based 3D Printing for Tissue Engineering and Cell Biology Applications

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Fabrication of 3D cell scaffolds has gained tremendous attention in recent years because of its applications in tissue engineering and cell biology applications. The success of tissue engineering or cell interactions mainly depends on the fabrication of well-defined microstructures, which ought to be biocompatible for cell proliferation. Femtosecond-laser-based 3D printing is one of the solution candidates that can be used to manufacture 3D tissue scaffolds through computer-aided design (CAD) which can be efficiently engineered to mimic the microenvironment of tissues. UV-based lithography has also been used for constructing the cellular scaffolds but the toxicity of UV light to the cells has prevented its application to the direct patterning of the cells in the scaffold. Although the mask-based lithography has provided a high resolution, it has only enabled 2D patterning not arbitrary 3D printing with design flexibility. Femtosecond-laser-based 3D printing is trending in the area of tissue engineering and cell biology applications due to the formation of well-defined micro- and submicrometer structures via visible and near infrared (NIR) femtosecond laser pulses, followed by the fabrication of cell scaffold microstructures with a high precision. Laser direct writing and multiphoton polymerization are being used for fabricating the cell scaffolds, The implication of spatial light modulators in the interference lithography to generate the digital hologram will be the future prospective of mask-based lithography. Polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEG-DA), ormocomp, pentaerythritol tetraacrylate (PETTA) have been fabricated through TPP to generate the cell scaffolds, whereas SU-8 was used to fabricate the microrobots for targeted drug delivery. Well designed and precisely fabricated 3D cell scaffolds manufactured by femtosecond-laser-based 3D printing can be potentially used for studying cell migration, matrix invasion and nuclear stiffness to determine stage of cancer and will open broader horizons in the future in tissue engineering and biology applications.
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ACS BIOMATERIALS SCIENCE & ENGINEERING, v.3, no.10, pp.2198 - 2214

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ME-Journal Papers(저널논문)
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