Wet Pretreatment-Induced Modification of Cu(In,Ga)Se-2/Cd-Free ZnTiO Buffer Interface

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We report a novel Cd-free ZnTiO buffer layer deposited by atomic layer deposition for Cu(In,Ga)Se-2 (CIGS) solar cells. Wet pretreatments of the CIGS absorbers with NH4OH, H2O, and/or aqueous solution of Cd2+ ions were explored to improve the quality of the CIGS/ZnTiO interface, and their effects on the chemical state of the absorber and the final performance of Cd-free CIGS devices were investigated. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis revealed that the aqueous solution etched away sodium compounds accumulated on the CIGS surface, which was found to be detrimental for solar cell operation. Wet treatment with NH4OH solution led to a reduced photocurrent, which was attributed to the thinning (or removal) of an ordered vacancy compound (OVC) layer on the CIGS surface as evidenced by an increased Cu XPS peak intensity after the NH4OH treatment. However, the addition of Cd2+ ions to the NH4OH aqueous solution suppressed the etching of the OVC by NH4OH, explaining why such a negative effect of NH4OH is not present in the conventional chemical bath deposition of CdS. The band alignment at the CIGS/ZnTiO interface was quantified using XPS depth profile measurements. A small cliff-like conduction band offset of -0.11 eV was identified at the interface, which indicates room for further improvement of efficiency of the CIGS/ZnTiO solar cells once the band alignment is altered to a slight spike by inserting a passivation layer with a higher conduction band edge than ZnTiO. Combination of the small cliff conduction band offset at the interface, removal of the Na compound via water, and surface doping by Cd ions allowed the application of ZnTiO buffer to CIGS treated with Cd solutions, exhibiting an efficiency of 80% compared to that of a reference CIGS solar cell treated with the CdS.
Publisher
AMER CHEMICAL SOC
Issue Date
2018-06
Language
English
Article Type
Article
Keywords

FILM SOLAR-CELLS; BAND-OFFSET; NA; SEMICONDUCTORS; PERFORMANCE; DEPOSITION; ALIGNMENT; CULNSE2; CUINSE2; SODIUM

Citation

ACS APPLIED MATERIALS & INTERFACES, v.10, no.24, pp.20920 - 20928

ISSN
1944-8244
DOI
10.1021/acsami.8b01090
URI
http://hdl.handle.net/10203/244548
Appears in Collection
MS-Journal Papers(저널논문)
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