A simultaneous measurement method of the thickness and permittivity of a thin and uniform material which is attached onto the top of a sensor structure is presented. The sensor utilizes the fundamental and harmonic frequencies of a microstrip line ring resonator structure. The thickness and permittivity of a material under test are calculated from two simultaneous equations at the fundamental and second-harmonic frequencies. Fitting equations to calculate the peak resonant frequencies with respect to the thickness and permittivity are also derived. The structure is implemented with a microstrip line on the front side of a TLY-5A substrate and coplanar waveguide access lines on the backside. The permittivity and thickness of the test material are successfully measured simultaneously.