Synthesis of binary nanoparticle superlattices has attracted attention for a broad spectrum of potential applications. However, this has remained challenging for one-dimensional nanoparticle systems. In this study, we investigate the packing behavior of one-dimensional nanoparticles of different diameters into a hexagonally packed cylindrical micellar system and demonstrate that binary one-dimensional nanoparticle superlattices of two different symmetries can be obtained by tuning particle diameter and mixing ratios. The hexagonal arrays of one-dimensional nanoparticles are embedded in the honeycomb lattices (for AB(2) type) or kagome lattices (for AB(3) type) of micellar cylinders. The maximization of free volume entropy is considered as the main driving force for the formation of superlattices, which is well supported by our theoretical free energy calculations. Our approach provides a route for fabricating binary one-dimensional nanoparticle superlattices and may be applicable for inorganic one-dimensional nanoparticle systems.