The accurate detection of disease-related biomarkers is crucial for the early diagnosis and management of disease in personalized medicine. Here, we present a molecular imaging of human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-expressing malignant tumors using an EGFR-specific repebody composed of leucine-rich repeat (LRR) modules. The repebody was labeled with either a fluorescent dye or radioisotope, and used for imaging of EGFR-expressing malignant tumors using an optical method and positron emission tomography. Our approach enabled visualization of the status of EGFR expression, allowing quantitative evaluation in whole tumors, which correlated well with the EGFR expression levels in mouse or patients-derived colon cancers. The present approach can be effectively used for the accurate detection of EGFR-expressing cancers, assisting in the development of a tool for detecting other disease biomarkers.