In this study, fire-damaged concrete was investigated by a nonlinear resonance vibration (NRV) technique, in order to evaluate its residual material properties. For the experiments, five cubic concrete specimens were prepared and four of them were damaged at different temperatures using a furnace. With a thermal insulator wrapped at the sides of specimen, thermal gradation was applied to the samples. According to the peak temperatures and depths of the samples, nonlinearity parameters were calculated with the NRV technique before the tendency of the parameters was evaluated. In addition, compressive strength and dynamic elastic modulus were measured for each sample and a comparison with the nonlinearity parameter was carried out. Through the experimental results, the possibility of the NRV technique as a method for evaluating residual material properties was evaluated.