Hepatitis C virus (HCV), a non-cytopathic positive-stranded RNA virus, is one of the most common causes of chronic liver diseases such as chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Upon HCV infection, the majority of patients fail to clear the virus and progress to chronic hepatitis C. Chemokines are small chemotactic cytokines that direct the recruitment of immune cells and coordinate immune responses upon viral infection. Chemokine production during acute HCV infection contributes to the recruitment of immune cells with antiviral effector functions and subsequent viral clearance. In chronic HCV infection, however, continuous production of chemokines due to persistent viral replication might result in incessant recruitment of inflammatory cells to the liver, giving rise to persistence of chronic inflammation and liver injury. In this review, we will summarize the roles of chemokines in acute and chronic settings of HCV infection and the clinical relevance of chemokines in the treatment of hepatitis C.